The Indonesian Culture


DESTINATION INDONESIA


Indonesia – a vast archipelago comprising more than 17,000 islands – contains a population numbering around 255 million people; a number that makes Indonesia the fourth most populous country in the world. These impressive numbers also imply that significant cultural, ethnic, religious and linguistic diversity can expected to be found within its boundaries, ranging from the daily Hindu rituals practiced on the island of Bali to the prevalence of Islamic sharia law in Aceh (Sumatra) or the semi-nomadic hunter-gatherer lifestyles of the Mentawai people.

 

Indonesia is the largest Muslim-majority country in the world. It is also the biggest archipelago, consisting of over 17,500 islands. The dispersion of the islands means that distinct  have developed to be regionally specific. Furthermore, over 300  groups are spread across Indonesia. The largest is the Javanese population (41%) that mostly occupies the island of Java. Others include, but are not limited to, the Sundanese, Malay, Batak, Madurese and Betawi people. Most  have languages, histories and cultures that pertain specifically to them. Hence, Indonesians tend to identify themselves locally foremost (according to their , family or birthplace) before defining themselves nationally.
This general summary addresses the common principles and concepts that contribute to the values and behaviour of many Indonesians. However, Indonesians are so diverse that this overview will not be applicable to every individual. An Indonesian’s regional, linguistic and  background must be considered in order to fully understand that individual’s cultural influences. For instance, one can observe dominant Indonesian culture to largely reflect characteristics of Javanese and Islamic society. Yet, the Balinese population, occupying the Island of Bali, are mostly Hindu. They follow different customs and traditions, have an alternate religious calendar and are divergent from other  populations in many other ways.
This being said, there are cultural concepts of broader Asian culture that are recognizable throughout Indonesia. For example,  is the quality embedded in most Asian cultures that indicates a person’s reputation, influence, dignity and honour. By complimenting a person, showing them respect or doing something to increase their self-esteem, you give them . Similarly, people can lose  and save or build . Therefore, individuals in Indonesia usually act deliberately and with  to protect their self-worth and peer perception. Conservative conduct is the norm, as people don’t want to stand out and/or risk losing  by doing something inappropriate.
 is also a guiding philosophy in Indonesia. It affects many features of society, particularly those of family and business. Working in  is viewed as the crucial element for productivity; thus the Indonesians have a predisposition to be , gentle and courteous – even if they disagree with what you are saying.
Indonesia is also more  than Western societies. Individuals often perceive themselves to be members of ‘groups’ rather than autonomous actors. These groups reflect or come to define who its members are and often expect a high degree of loyalty. For example, the group’s interests usually supersede those of the individual, even if they conflict. Furthermore, group members expect to receive preferential treatment over anyone who is not part of the group. In return for this loyalty, an individual gains a sense of belonging, protection and unity. This is important as unity is considered essential to maintaining  among all the diverse populaces.
This  also influences social behaviour. Due to the country’s high population density, people in Indonesia rarely do things or go places by themselves. Those who operate alone are sometimes pitied or even questioned about their solitary ways. Privacy doesn’t have the same value that it does in Western societies. People immerse themselves in others’ lives. Curiosity spurs gossip, and a person’s business easily becomes the community’s business.
Indonesian society is hierarchical, organised predominantly by age. One’s status, education and perceived power will demand degrees of deference, but age usually becomes the overriding factor determining the level of respect. Elders are presumed to have the most wisdom and are therefore considered the most deserving of authority. Indonesians may use honorific speech and bow slightly when talking to someone older than them. Women have full civil rights; the Islamic code that professes a separation between genders is not followed as stringently as it is in other Islamic countries. However, there is a distinct attitude in society that sees females as secondary to males.
Generally, Indonesians are very gracious people who enjoy affection and have a desire to please. By large, they respond well to those who show respect in the appropriate fashion and pay them recognition. By being warm, generous with your time and visibly displaying that you like them, you are likely to experience their enthusiasm and friendship.

 


Greetings

  • Greetings between two people of the same gender usually involve a handshake.
  • Devout Muslims may prefer not to touch people of the opposite gender.
  • Some Indonesians may place their hand on their heart or bow slightly after shaking hands.
  • Women may choose to bow with their hands folded instead of shaking hands.
  • People may greet close relatives by shaking hands and kissing one another on both cheeks.
  • Younger people do not call those older than them by their first name, but rather call them “Bapak” (Mr.), “Ibu” (Mrs.) or “Kakak” (elder).
  • Always greet people in order of their age (from eldest to youngest) in informal and family settings

Religion

At the time of the 2010 Indonesian Census, 87.2% of Indonesia was Muslim, 6.9% was Protestant-Christian, 2.9% was Catholic-Christian and 1.7% was Hindu. A further 0.7% was Buddhist and 0.05% was Confucian.
Indonesia is a very spiritual country and Indonesians often ask people about their faith shortly after meeting them.  is not widely accepted, and Westerners visiting Indonesia are often presumed to be Christian if they do not clearly identify their faith.
The Indonesian government has also banned  (attempts to convert people to one’s own religion) as a measure to avoid religious conflict.

Family

In  cultures such as Indonesia, families are perceived as having a collective . In this sense, the act of an individual will impact the perception of one’s entire family by others. Therefore, individuals should strive to give their family a good name and honour their parents. They are also expected to be loyal to their family before any other connections.
Indonesian culture stresses that people are socially responsible for their families and that children must look after their elders. For example, they may have to work away from home to provide financial assistance or give up their leisure time to raise siblings. On one hand, this pressure can be restrictive for young Indonesians as much time is consumed with family duties. However, their loyalty is rewarded with a sense of security and reciprocal assistance when needed.
The  is the newly predominant household structure as it has become more common for couples to only have two children. Elder grandparents or unmarried siblings may join the domestic unit as personal circumstances change. The links an Indonesian person maintains with their extended family overseas are much closer than those maintained by most people in Western societies.
Age determines status in the household  with children expected to be obedient and doting to their parents. The father or oldest male is usually the  while women take care of domestic duties. Women have the ability to forge their own careers, and have more rights than women in some other Islamic countries in regard to property, inheritance and divorce. However, most of Indonesian society is still  and many wives will attribute their success to their husbands ‘allowing’ them to be successful.
There are a few indigenous populations (around 8 ‘groups’) still practising a  system within their culture. In these communities, authority lies with the females. Examples include Minangkabau in West Sumatra and Enggano in Bengkulu.

Relationships and Marriage

Marriage indicates full adulthood in Indonesia, and people are often pressured and probed about their marital status. They are often asked, “Are you married yet?”. The response is either “yes” or “not yet”; answers always allude to the notion that it will happen imminently or eventually. People do not usually marry those of different  in Indonesia; however, it is becoming more common in the urban areas.
Arranged marriages are still prevalent in rural Indonesia, with many women marrying by the time they’re 20 years old. In accordance to Islamic values, an Indonesian man can have up to four wives if he can prove that he can provide for them equally. However, though it is allowed,  is uncommon in Indonesia.

Naming

NAming practices and traditions vary significantly across different regions,  and linguistic groups in Indonesia. The following information provides a guideline to general conventions across the country, although is most representative of Javenese Indonesian naming practices.

Naming Conventions

  • The Western concept of having a ‘first name’, ‘middle name’ and ‘family name’ is not followed in Indonesia.
  • Under Indonesian naming conventions, all components of a name are considered part of a single given name that is their unique personal identifier, i.e. [personal name].
  • Similarly, official Indonesian documents (e.g. ID, license, passport) consider any sequence or number of names to comprise an individual’s full personal name alone.
  • Indonesian personal names are usually either one to three words long, although some may be longer. For example, Suparman (male) and Wulandari Hartono (female).
  • One-word names (e.g. Suparman) are especially common among Javanese people. In these instances, the single word alone is considered the person’s full name.
  • Similarly, all words in longer names (e.g. Yovan Gunardio Darmawan) are considered components of a single personal name, rather than a first name, middle name and surname.
  • Surnames are not legally recognised and there is no national custom of inheriting family names. Some people may have words in their name that operate like a surname (see Inherited Names below). However, most Indonesians do not have a surname.
  • This means the names of family members often have no resemblance to each other. For example, Wulandari Hartono and Suparman’s child may be called Hasan. The birth certificate would read “Hasan child of Suparman and Wulandari Hartono“. However, the child’s name would appear as simply ‘Hasan’ for all other intents and purposes (e.g. ID, license, passport).
  • Name structures may also vary within a family. For example, a parent with a one-word name may give their child a name three-words long.
  • It is not customary for Indonesian women to change their legal name at marriage. However, some may adopt their husband’s name informally in social settings, based on personal choice. For example, the wife of President Joko Widodo was named Iriana at birth and changed it to Iriana Widodo.

Inherited Names

  • While surnames or ‘inherited names’ are not legally recognised in Indonesia, parents may choose to add a word component to their child’s given name that reflects the person’s lineage. This is usually the last word in a person’s name that essentially operates like a surname. The practice is most common in names that are two words long or more.
  • Traditionally noble families (usually Javanese or Sundanese) may pass on a name that indicates their family’s lineage and prestige. For example, in the case of Prince Kanjeng Pangeran Haryo Notonegoro, “Notonegoro” is the family name indicating he is from a noble family.‬‬‬‬‬‬
  • For some  groups, the first word of a person’s name may be a noble title. For example, Teuku Wisnu – ‘Teuku’ indicates nobility among the Acehnese people.
  • Some parents may choose to pass on their father’s given name to the child, followed by the suffix ‘putra’ (prince/son) or ‘putri’ (princess/daughter). For example, Suparman’s child may be called ‘Hasan Suparmanputra’. This patronymic name is still considered part of the person’s full personal name, rather than a surname.
  • Certain Indonesian  groups and tribes may pass on a  name that operates as a surname. For example, a person of Batak descent may be named Ruhut Sitompul, in which ‘Sitompul’ is a  name.

Names

  • Indonesian parents are generally free to choose whatever name they want for their child. This often leads to a lot of variation in name structure and formations.
  • There is a general preference to try and choose a highly individual name that endures as the child’s unique personal identifier throughout life. Therefore, children are rarely named after other family members or friends.
  • Names are often created by adding suffixes to existing names or words, or by blending elements from different languages and  or religious naming traditions, such as Sanskrit, Javanese, Arabic, Chinese and Dutch. For example, the name ‘Annisa Eka Martha Widaswari’ has words from Arabic, Sanskrit, Latin and Javanese.
  • For example, many names are derived from Sanskrit words, reflecting cultural influence of Hinduism in the country, e.g. Sudarto (Javanese for Siddharta), Satya, Aryo, Bima, Dewi.
  • Arabic names are especially popular among Muslim Indonesians, e.g. Muhammad, Ali, Hasan (male) or Aisha, Fatimah, Nabila (female).
  • It is common for male names to end with the suffix ‘-uddin’ or ‘-udin’ to make them more recognisably Arabic, e.g. Najmuddin, Hasanuddin, etc.1
  • Some people may have English-Western names (e.g. Rudy, Betty, Iwan, Anita). These are especially among Chinese Indonesians.2 English names may be combined with an Indonesian name, e.g. Tony Kusuma and Lisa Chandrawi.
  • Most Indonesian names are also instilled with some significant meaning that symbolises parents’ aspirations and wishes for the child, e.g. Slamet (Javanese – safe/peaceful), Beja (Javanese – luck).
  • Some names may indicate the order a child was born. For example, Javanese people may use the Sanskrit words ‘Eka’ or ‘Eko’ (first-born), ‘Dwi’ (second-born), ‘Tri’ (third-born), etc. Similarly, Balinese people may name their eldest son ‘Wayan’, the second son ‘Made’, ‘Nyoman’ (third-born), ‘Ketut’ (fourth-born), etc.
  • A name may reflect the time or circumstance of a person’s birth, such as the month they were born. For example, Nova, Novita (November) or Yuni, Yunisa (June).3

Addressing Others

  • Indonesians generally address friends and acquaintances by their given name in casual contexts. However, this is only appropriate when communicating with people of the same age and status as one’s self.
  • In all other contexts, the given name is accompanied by an honorific title that shows  and respect based on people’s gender, age and social relationship to one another.
  • Titles usually have familial connotations, such as ‘uncle or ‘aunt’ instead of professional meanings.
  • The formal way to address those who are older than yourself or of higher status is ‘Bapak’ (Sir.) or ‘Pak’ (Mr.) for men and ‘Ibu’ (Ma’am) or ‘Bu’ (Ms./Mrs.) for women. These literally translate to “father” and “mother” respectively, and are commonly used in professional settings and when meeting someone for the first time.
  • An informal way to address someone significantly older is ‘Kakak’ (older sibling), while ‘Adik’ (younger sibling) is for someone younger. These can be used for either gender.
  • The title always comes before the person’s name. For example, you would refer to Wulandari Hartono as ‘Ibu Wulandari Hartono’.
  • Be aware terms of address vary between different  and linguistic groups in Indonesia.
  • It is common for Indonesians to refer to friends by nicknames that are an abbreviation of their full name. For example, ‘Kinidwi’ may be referred to as ‘Dwi’.4
  • People with three-word names or longer generally use the first word of their name or a nickname in most casual contexts. For example, Annisa Eka Martha Widaswari may be known as ‘Nisa’ for all intents and purposes However, an Indonesian will usually tell you which name or nickname to refer to them by.
  • Some people may add initials before or after their name in official written form (e.g. emails, invitations, etc.). These are usually honorific titles relating to one’s educational or religious background. For example, “H. Senen Maryono, M.” – the ‘H’ stands for ‘Haji’ meaning the person has completed a pilgrimage to Mecca, and the ‘M’ means he has a master’s degree.

Dates of Significance

  • Kartini Day (21st of April)
  • Indonesian National Day (17th of August)
  • Youth Declaration Day (28th of October)
  • Hero Day (10th of November)
Religious celebrations according to Islam, Christian, Hindu or other faith can vary from year to year as some are based on the lunar calendar. These include:
  • Chinese New Year
  • Hari Raya Hyeni (Hindu)
  • Easter (Christian)
  • Isra Mi’rai Day (Muslim)
  • Waisak Day (Buddhist)
  • Eid al Fitr (Muslim)
  • Eid al Adha (Muslim)
  • First Day of Muharam (Muslim)
  • Maulidur Rasul (Muslim)
  • Christmas Day (Christian)

Basic Etiquette

  • Remove your shoes before you enter a carpeted room, place of worship or if you see that the host/hostess has removed theirs.
  • Tipping is appreciated—though a person of service is unlikely to ask for it.
  • Wait to be seated by a host.
  • Chinese Indonesians often ‘fight’ to pay when eating at a restaurant. Offering to pay for everyone is an exhibition of wealth.
  • The Indonesian concept of time is much looser than that of an Australian’s, so it is not unusual for them to be one or two hours late to appointments.

Eating

  • Do not begin to eat until indicated to do so.
  • Food is usually served from larger dishes in the middle of the table. The host may serve the guests at the first serving, but generally guests serve themselves from there on out.
  • Some Indonesians may eat with their hands.
  • Keep both hands above the table while eating.
  • Only pass food with your right hand.
  • Emptying your glass or finishing everything on your plate indicates that you want another refill or serving and will prompt the host to keep offering you more food.
  • Do not leave your seat or the table until everyone has finished their meal.

Gift Giving

  • Indonesians usually try to bring gifts when visiting friends. These are small usually don’t have a significant monetary value.
  • Flowers are given on special occasions (i.e. marriages, funerals).
  • Gifts should be given and accepted with both hands together or the right hand alone.
  • Gifts are not opened immediately upon receiving them.
  • The appropriate gift may vary depending on an Indonesian’s  and religion.
  • For Malays and Muslim Indonesians, gifts that have alcohol or pork in them should not be given.
  • For strict Muslims, gifts of food must meet  standards. Many Muslims accept foods without  certification as long as it does not contain any pork products (including pork oil/fat).
  • Chinese Indonesians may decline receiving a gift two or three times out of  before accepting. Elaborate wrapping (especially in red and gold) is admired and appreciated. Taboo items are sharp objects (e.g. knives, scissors), clocks, handkerchiefs, umbrellas, green hats, mirrors and yellow or white flowers.
  • For Indian or Hindu Indonesians, wrapping should be in bright colours, and leather products and alcohol should not be given.

Do’s and Don’ts

Do’s

  • Make an effort to keep discussion harmonious and balanced. Take an  approach towards any corrective remarks.
  • It is important to ask questions in several ways in order to be certain of what was meant by a vague response.
  • Be obvious in showing an Indonesian that you enjoy their company and are fond of them. While they are , they generally look for explicit signs of approval and friendship.
  • Express flattery when it is due as this will give . However, always do so with sincerity – giving a blatantly ‘fake’ compliment can cause an Indonesian to lose  instead.
  • Treat older Indonesians with respect. Always give substantial recognition of their opinion.
  • Try and take an unassuming attitude and be discreet about your private life with those you do not know well.
  • Respect an Indonesian’s modesty and keep a distance from those of the opposite gender unless you know them well.

Don’ts

  • Avoid directly criticising someone or pointing out their mistakes as these actions can cause an Indonesian to lose . They are generally not very open with their emotions in the public sphere, so it can be hard to distinguish when they are offended. However, if an Indonesian is cold towards you or avoids you, you can take that as an indication that you have seriously upset them.
  • Avoid raising your voice, shouting or losing your temper in public. To see someone crying or losing emotional control in public can make Indonesians feel awkward. Doing so will likely cause you to lose  and respect in their eyes.
  • Try not to interrupt or fill in the silence during conversations.
  • Avoid talking about government/military corruption in Indonesia as broaching sensitive topics such as these can make an Indonesian feel uncomfortable. They may not know how to respond without losing .
  • Do not laugh at the mistake of another or tell jokes that poke fun at the disadvantage of others.

Communication

Verbal

  • Indirect Communication: Indonesians are generally . They make less use of words and are more attentive to posture, expression and tone of voice to draw meaning. Speech is ambiguous, often understating the point or corrective remarks to be polite. The purpose of this is to maintain  throughout the conversation and prevent a loss of  on either end of the exchange. The best way of finding the underlying meaning is to check for clarification several times using open-ended questions.
  • Refusals: An Indonesian’s preoccupation with saving  and  can mean that they will be reluctant to give a flat “no” or negative response, even when they do not agree with you. Therefore, focus on hints of hesitation. Listen closely to what they say, but also pay careful attention to what they don’t say and double check understandings to clarify meaning.
  • Soft Voices: When initially meeting a stranger, an Indonesian may speak quite softly and submissively. However, they usually have no reservations in raising their voices when they get excited and can be quite loud once you get to know them. Nevertheless, shouting or expressing anger in one’s voice is generally not appropriate. More prudish Indonesians can see it to reflect a poor education or upbringing.

Non-Verbal

  • Silence: Silence is an important and purposeful tool used in Asian communication. Pausing before giving a response indicates that someone has applied appropriate thought and consideration to the question. This signifies  and respect.
  • Personal Space: Indonesians are generally accustomed to having less personal space than Australians as public spaces (in the cities especially) can be very crowded. People commonly sit and stand closer to one another, however what privacy can be afforded is respected.
  • Physical Contact: Indonesians are generally quite modest with regards to physical contact. While a pat on the shoulder can signify comfort or approval, physical affection is usually only shown between close friends and family. Practicing Muslims may be uncomfortable touching the opposite gender in any way unless they are a close friend or relative. Indonesian men generally do not touch older women in public at all aside from a handshake.
  • Eye Contact: It is expected that one diverts their eyes out of respect when speaking to someone older or of a higher social status. Indonesians tend to make  eye contact with their peers, but still break the gaze quite frequently. They may feel awkward holding prolonged eye contact and divert their eyes when speaking with Westerners, however people from the cities are generally more accustomed to it.
  • Hands: There is a separation of function of the hands in Indonesia, influenced by Islamic culture. The left hand is considered unclean and is used for the removal of dirt and cleaning. Therefore, it is not used for actions such as waving, eating or offering items.
  • The Head: The head is considered the purest part of an Indonesian’s body and should never be touched. When Indonesians pass people of superior status on the street, they may lower their head below the height of that person as a sign of respect.
  • Feet: The feet are considered the lowliest part of a person’s body. Displaying the soles of one’s feet to another person is considered rude and improper. Similarly, placing one’s feet on top of the table is not acceptable.
  • Hands on Hips: Holding one’s hands on one’s hips can signal anger.
  • Pointing: For traditional Javanese people in particular, pointing is done with the thumb instead of the index finger.

Other Considerations

  • Dogs are considered unclean in Indonesia and are not usually well liked or kept as pets.
  • Indonesians can perceive Westerners as being too aggressive, driven by money and taking themselves too seriously. The mainstream tourism on some Indonesian islands has developed a stereotype of Australians in particular as ‘party animals’ who are heavy drinkers and inconsiderate of local customs or traditions. It is important to respect customs of modesty and courtesy to avoid being perceived in the same way.
  • Indonesians can be reluctant to admit that they do not know answers to questions, which can cause misunderstandings. For example, an Indonesian may give incorrect directions instead of admitting that they do not know the route to the place you need to go.
  • Indonesian men sometimes grow a few of their nails very long as a way of indicating that they are a non-manual labourer or are above the working class.

Business Culture

Meetings

  • Arrive on time but consider that your Indonesian counterpart may be late to a meeting. Try and be flexible with your time-planning to allow for this.
  • Foreign visitors are expected to dress smartly for business meetings, either in suits or traditional shirts. Wearing a batik fabric is likely to be met with appreciation.
  • Greet everyone in the room individually with a handshake.
  • It is customary to greet people in order of their seniority in any professional setting (i.e. greeting the team leader first, followed by their subordinates, and the most junior person last). If you are unsure of people’s rank in the professional , it is best to greet people starting by starting with the person nearest to you and making your way across the room.
  • Receiving Business Cards: Asian cultures can interpret the respect you show someone’s business card to be indicative of the respect you will show the individual in business. Use both hands (or the right hand only) to receive a business card as the left hand is considered unclean and is used for the removal of dirt and cleaning. Do not put the card away immediately, but regard it carefully and place it in front of you on the table until everyone is seated.
  • Presenting Business Cards: Use both hands or the right hand only when presenting a business card, making sure that the writing is facing the other person.
  • Initial business meetings are usually reserved for acquainting people with each other and building rapport. In the first few meetings, business might not even be discussed. Avoid seeming hasty to get to the matters at hand as a good relationship is critical to doing business with Indonesians.
  • The Indonesians generally take an unaggressive approach to business as they view boisterous behaviour very negatively. Rather, they speak softly and with little emotional weight. Try to echo this same style of communication. Show compassion and be personable, but do not be confrontational or let emotion get in the way of negotiations.
  • Almost everything can be seen as negotiable in Indonesia, so expect some bargaining. They do not bargain aggressively and high-pressure tactics are likely to collapse negotiations. Therefore, if they have unrealistically high starting positions, allow time to gentle sway them over the course of the meeting.
  • Do not interrupt an Indonesian. They will usually give you plenty of room to speak and often show a great amount of respect during conversation. If you do not do the same, they may be too intimidated to share their opinions at all.
  • Expect them to defer to hearing your opinion a lot as Indonesians often ask their counterparts to speak first so that they can modify their own proposals. They show a great amount of deference by trying to say what they think you want to hear, however this can make it hard to decipher what their genuine opinions are. Though it is possible to get Indonesians to clarify what they mean, meetings still often end with a few points seeming vague.
  • They may be reluctant to tell you when they cannot understand or disagree, so sometimes it can be hard to judge how successful negotiations actually are.

Relationship Oriented

Personal relationships play a large role in Indonesian business culture. They see trust as key to good business and will be looking for an honest commitment to the relationship from you. Their business networks are often comprised of relatives and peers as  is assumed to guarantee trust.
Indonesians generally see themselves as doing business with people, not entities. You represent yourself as an individual more than you do your company. Therefore, expect them to ask many questions about your family and personal life in an effort to get to know you. Sometimes these can come across as  and overly-personal, but it is not intended this way and they will expect you to ask the same of them. Doing so in return will signify respect.

Harmony

In Indonesian business culture, people believe that good  and relations are the most important components to successful business. The concept that ‘time is money’ does not translate culturally. Instead of being urgently productive, people try to maintain a fun/pleasant atmosphere as they work. Therefore, keep in mind that they may take a longer time negotiating and completing things. Do not be pushy or insistent on punctuality or speed as displays of aggression or heavy insistence can make Indonesians hesitant of doing business with you. Accept that they can be more concerned about having a smooth business negotiation than making a hard-driven profit.

Considerations

  • Indonesian business culture is hierarchical based on age and position. Leadership is  and the oldest person usually leads discussion.
  • Despite the hierarchical structure of Indonesian business, consensus is sought from everyone before a decision is made in order to maintain .
  • Your Indonesian counterpart may ask for your help or advice. It’s a good idea to readily give personal favours when possible.
  • On the  (2017), Indonesia ranks 96th out of 180 countries, receiving a score of 37 (on a scale from 0 to 100). This perception suggests that the country’s public sector is somewhat corrupt.

Source: https://culturalatlas.sbs.com.au/indonesian-culture/indonesian-culture-core-concepts

By: Miss Cherry May Timbol – Independent Reporter

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