What Is Thalassemia? Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments


A blood disease called thalassemia that you can pass on to your offspring. Your body makes aberrant hemoglobin as a result of it. This hemoglobin is not very effective at delivering oxygen to your tissues. Your red blood cells (RBCs) may be impacted if your hemoglobin levels become out of control. This may result in anemia or low hemoglobin levels in the blood signs. Find out more about thalassemia and how to treat it in the sections below.

Causes of Thalassemia

The majority of people are aware if they or their child has thalassemia because a family member also has the condition. It is directly inherited through gene mutations from parents to offspring. Some components of hemoglobin are made by these genes. Red blood cells contain the protein hemoglobin, which transports oxygen to various bodily areas. Alpha and beta chains make up its structure. If you inherit a mutation in one or more of the genes that make the alpha and beta chains, you can get thalassemia.
The two main thalassemia kinds are as follows. You have alpha thalassemia if the genes responsible for producing your hemoglobin’s alpha chains are mutated. If your beta-producing genes have been altered.

Alpha Thalassemia

The four genes that create your hemoglobin’s alpha chains are found in your blood. How many of these genes are mutated determines how severe your indications and symptoms are:
You will not exhibit any thalassemia symptoms or signs if there is only one gene mutation.
Due to two gene mutations, you will most likely not require treatment and your thalassemia signs and symptoms will be moderate.
You will have moderate to severe thalassemia and require therapy if you have three gene mutations.
It’s unusual to have mutations in all four of these genes. Sadly, a kid with all four defective genes is likely to be stillborn or pass away soon after birth. A child who carries all four mutations, however, occasionally makes it through treatment.

Beta Thalassemia

The production of hemoglobin’s beta chains is regulated by two genes. Once more, the number of gene mutations you have determines how severe your indications and symptoms are:
You will experience minor thalassemia symptoms and indicators if you have one gene mutation.
You will experience mild to severe thalassemia signs and symptoms if you have both gene abnormalities.
Both beta and alpha thalassemia cause you to carry the afflicted genes to your offspring.

Signs and Symptoms

The first two years of life are when thalassemia symptoms typically manifest. If you have experienced problems dating back to your early years, you may have this health condition.
  • Family members with a history of anemia
  • Fatigue
  • Shortness of breath
  • Abnormal heartbeats
  • Bone issues
You may also have other signs and symptoms, like:
  • Weakness
  • Dizziness
  • Headache
  • Leg cramps
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Pale skin
Additionally, thalassemia is more prevalent in people of Mediterranean, Southeast Asian, and Black/African American heritage than in other ethnic groups.

REFERENCES:

By: Miss Cherry May Timbol – Independent Reporter

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