By Brendan Godwin
The paper (image, above) by Wong & Minnett is written by climate alarmists.  They are attempting to actually measure warming of the ocean from the back radiation from CO2 molecules. They were unable to.
This appears to be the first attempt by anyone to measure potential warming of the Earth’s surface from back-radiation. There were a number of important comments they made.
Before going into those comments, it has to be noted that Wong & Minnett tried to measure warming from back-radiation from CO2 molecules. They were able to measure back-radiation from the atmosphere and from clouds. They could not determine the source of the back-radiation.
They did not even think about measuring back-radiation from water vapor. They did look at water vapor but only as a potential theoretical feed back from CO2 warming. Despite there being 100 times more water vapor than CO2 and despite it being up to 33 times more radiatively active and despite 85% to 95% of all back-radiation was coming from water vapor, they did not consider it.
So despite the vast majority of back-radiation was coming from water vapor, Wong & Minnett stated they did not know whether the back-radiation was coming from CO2 or the clouds. Their paper was built on an assumption that all back-radiation was coming from CO2. A false assumption.
Wong & Minnett tried to separate the warming of the ocean from direct solar radiation in the visible spectrum, from potential theoretical warming from back-radiation. They found that task not possible.
But Wong & Minnett did determine that the back-radiation of IR EMR only penetrated the oceans to “within the top micrometers of the ocean’s surface”. They were able to determine that whatever effect this was going to have on ocean warming was extremely minimal.
Even if there was a difference between solar radiation and back-radiation temperatures, their instruments were not sensitive enough to detect it.
This paper was 2018. The latest and greatest state of the art thermometers did not have the number of decimal places to be able to detect any warming difference. Let us say they eventually invent such a thermometer. The warming difference, if there ends up being one, will be in micro-degrees. But then 85% – 95% of those micro-degrees are coming from water vapor.
Just 5%-15% are coming from CO2 molecules. And just 4% of those CO2 molecules are from humans. So that will be theoretical 4% of 5% of micro-degrees. And that will only be in the micrometer surface skin of the ocean. That will do absolutely nothing to heat the oceans. The oceans are 70% of the Earth’s surface area. So it does nothing to heat the Earth.
The whole experiment is in vain. Back-radiation is the Earth’s radiation coming back on itself. It is impossible for the Earth to heat itself with it’s own radiation. That contravenes the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics.
 The Response of the Ocean Thermal Skin Layer to Variations in Incident Infrared Radiation Elizabeth W. Wong Peter J. Minnett (23 March 2018) https://doi.org/10.1002/2017JC013351 https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/2017JC013351
Comment section below is open for both comments and additional information.